How much the popular trend above is due to Tseng and those of her camp is opaque. Never the less, it is clear that her paper was ahead of the trending marketing strategy that forward looking publishers and educationalists are adopting today.


Stevick. E.W. (1980) ‘The Monitor Model and the Levertov Machine’  in Teaching Languages, A Way and Ways. Rowley, MA: NHB

Tseng, Y.H. (2002) A Lesson in Culture. ELT J 56 (1): 11-21.doi: 10.1093/elt/56.1.11. retrieved 28 March from

Vigotsky, L. (1978) ‘Interaction between Learning and Development’ in Gauvin, M; Cole, M. (Eds. 1997)  Readings on the Development of Children. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company 29-36. Retrieved  29 April from

Return to: A Cultural Perspective for ELT


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